Sunday, May 24, 2020

Slavery in the American Colonies Essay - 966 Words

1. In the American colonies, Virginians switched from indentured servants to slaves for their labor needs for many reasons. A major reason was the shift in the relative supply of indentured servants and slaves. While the colonial demand for labor was increasing, a sharp decrease occurred in the number of English migrants arriving in America under indenture. Slaves were permanent property and female slaves passed their status on to their children. Slaves also seemed to be a better investment than indentured servants. Slaves also offered masters a reduced level of successful flight. 2. Most American slaves came from the coastal region of West Africa. 3. Around 10 or 11 million African slaves were brought to New World. Only about six†¦show more content†¦Blacks made up a minority of the population and the lower South comprised only roughly half the population. 6. The â€Å"Americanization† process of slaves brought to America is one that has been debated. Some say the slaves brought to America quickly abandoned most of their African ways and adopted the dominant culture against those who stress the continuing African cultural legacy among black Americans. The Africans that were brought to America involuntarily essentially remained Africans at heart. The descendants of Africans that were brought to America were not like the original Africans or white Americans. They were heavily influenced by the behavior of their masters but maintained some of their African culture. They formed a new culture known as African-American. 7. Slave women that were imported from Africa tended to continue the African tradition of breastfeeding for the first two years of life, while those born in America rapidly adapted to the local custom of breastfeeding for one year. The number of African names decreased over time, even though American-born slaves were able to mostly name their babies. Biblical names became more common among slaves born in America. The persistence of African folkways into the 19th century produced slave dancing in New Orleans. Nighttime dancing was so popular among African-born slaves in early New Orleans that city officials set aside a squareShow MoreRelatedSlavery During The American Colonies Essay1537 Words   |  7 PagesSlavery in the American colonies had greatly shaped the nation as we know it to be today. After the discovery of the New World, Spanish conquerors intended to enslave Native Americans, but punishment, overwork, and diseases such as small pox and malaria decreased their population rapidly. The only solution was to kidnap African Americans from their homeland and transport them on ships under poor, unsanitary conditions, many of which died of yellow fever, dysentery, or suicide. Upon arrival, theyRead MoreThe Identity Of The American Revolution1527 Words   |  7 PagesThe identity of the American colonists prior to the American Revolution was still work in progress because there were certain events that helped shape their identity and led to the American Revolution. The American colonies were trying to break away from the British control because they wanted to become independent and be their own nation. Once the British began to realize the intentions of the colonists, they began to create laws, acts, and other forms things to keep the colonists under their controlRead MoreThe American Revolution And Its Effect On American History1537 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Revolution began in 1775. Due to the Revolution 1775 proved to be one of the most prod uctive years in American history. The American Revolution caused great changes in the original thirteen colonies that helped mold the United States into what it is today. The revolution caused changes in the original colonies’ economics, caused immense changes in slavery, and changed the society of the colonies in general. As a result of the French and Indian war Britain neglected the American coloniesRead MoreAfrican Americans and Cotton Fields1233 Words   |  5 PagesWhen we think about slavery we perceive it to be African Americans working on a cotton field, but where did that perception come from and where did slavery begin in North America? Slavery has been one of the longest standing legal systems used throughout history. History shows that the first settlers in North America, both the Vikings and Native Americans, were the first cultures to practice slavery in the area. Slavery continued through early modern history, aiding in the discovery of North AmericaRead MoreAPUSH SLAVERY FRQ813 Words   |  4 Pages FRQ #2: Analyze the origins and development of slavery in Britain’s North American colonies in the period 1607 to 1776. The founding of the majority of American colonies was either for an economic profit or for religious freedom. To make the colonies founded for an economic profit, a large work force was needed. For many religious colonies that turned into huge economic powers, they used the Protestant work ethic. Other colonies decided to use indentured servants originally, but this ended upRead MoreHelping the Poor Whites in the Book, American Slavery, American Freedom by Edmund S. Morgan730 Words   |  3 PagesAmerican Slavery, American Freedom was written by Edmund S. Morgan, a professor at Yale University, who was born in 1916 and studied with very well-known professors at Harvard. The book is broken down into four sections: early English colonization, the beginning of a stable colony in Virginia, the indentured servant class and African slaves as a permanent labor. The first book Morgan talks about the relationship between the English colonists and the American Indians who inhabited the land previouslyRead MoreFederal Government of the United States and Territorial Expansion1101 Words   |  5 Pagessocial development of the New England colonies from 1630 through the 1660s? (Form B) 1. The issue of territorial expansion sparked considerable debate in the period 1800–1855. Analyze this debate and evaluate the influence of both supporters and opponents of territorial expansion in shaping federal government policy. 2009 DBQ: (Form A) From 1775 to 1830, many African Americans gained freedom from slavery, yet during the same period the institution of slavery expanded. Explain why BOTH of thoseRead MoreThe Necessary Evil That United The Colonies. Slavery Is1508 Words   |  7 PagesThe Necessary Evil That United The Colonies Slavery is an important part of the United States history, using White, Native American, and black African American slaves, it helped build this country in its beginning. Ultimately it was one of the worst atrocities in history. The inhumanity of it is still affecting the country today. So why did it take so long to abolish it when a majority of the Founding Fathers, while having slaves themselves, where apposed to it? Why did they not use their power toRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Revolutionary Era925 Words   |  4 Pagestyrannic king swept through the colonies and a fight for independence was making it’s way. However, the war with Britain would be no cake walk for the new found colonies and extra reinforcement was needed. African Americans played major roles during the Revolutionary Era by participating in battles such as Lexington, Bunker Hill, and Yorktown. Some were free African Americans who volunteered to serve in the war, but the majority were slaves not onl y fighting for the colonies independence, but freedom ofRead MoreSlavery 1680-18601039 Words   |  5 Pagestraded. With slavery came empowerment to the white man and land ownership and all rights and freedom for Native Americans, poor whites, African Americans, and women diminish substantially in America. Americas growing settlements and colonies were completely dependent on slave labor and were growing fast because of it. America’s freedom was stripped during slavery due to the high dependency on African American slave trade. With the up rise of revolts and anti slavery acts, the colonies feel just how

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Human Resource Development ( Hrd ) - 1039 Words

INTRODUCTION Coaching is a purposeful connection with another human that supports immediate change and stimulates long term sustainable results (Mann, S., Smith, S., 2015, p.36) Many organizations are turning to coaching and mentoring programs to develop talent. These programs connect the value of internal employee resources to develop others, which saves time, cost, and increases overall employee satisfaction and productivity. However, it can really help engage individuals and develop their agility as well as ability to learn: a key indicator of leadership performance and potentials. Human Resource Development (HRD) has become the main framework for assisting employees in developing their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Coaching is important to HRD because its main focus is developing a superior workforce in order for the organization and its employees to be able to accomplish their goals through the employees. Companies and organizations who actively try to ensure that their employees are stimulated and properly developed have a low turnover rate. REASONS FOR COACHING I chose coaching because every individual has the potential to grow and develop in the right environment and coaching can be used as a tool to support this development. In addition, Coaching is a professional partnership between a qualified coach and an individual or team that supports the achievement of extraordinary results, based on goals set by the individual or team.Show MoreRelatedHuman Resource Development : Hrd1607 Words   |  7 PagesHuman resource development well known as HRD, is a rough draft for helping employees mature their individual and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development contains many opportunities for â€Å"employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance, and organization development.† Human resources take the part of a vital role in developing a business’sRead MoreHuman Resource Development ( Hrd )1324 Words   |  6 PagesHuman Resource Development (HRD) is a function of an organization aims to provide the benefits to stakeholders especially to employees, society and organization or employer. The purpose of establishing HRD department within the organizations is to provide the personal development opportunities to staff for their career by offering them mentoring, personal planning, professional training, education, and so on, which could contribute in their personal development and ensure proper functioning of theRead MoreHuman Resource Development ( Hrd )1415 Words   |  6 PagesHuman Resource Development (HRD) is the process of providing training and learning, for both career and organisational development, to improve overall effectiveness (Noe and Winkler, 2012). Business today is achieved in a highly networked world, where employees are a vital asset (Balakrishnan Srividhya, 2007). HRD is concerned with the development of human capital for the benefit of both the employees and the organisation (Balakrishnan Srividhya, 2007). It is inevitable that different levelsRead MoreHuman Resource Development ( Hrd )2136 Words   |  9 PagesHuman Resource Development (HRD) is the driving force behind any prospering business. It is the compass that calculates the direction in which the business will need to take based on the available resources, people, and short and long term goals to achieve its mission. HRD gives the organisation guidance on how to create strategic advantage over competitors in the market through the use of training and development provided to its employees to increase their knowledge, skills, education, and abilitiesRead MoreHuman Resource Development (HRD) which is any process over the activity that is of a short term or800 Words   |  4 PagesHuman Resource Development (HRD) which is any process over the activity that is of a short term or over the long term. It has the potential to develop the work-knowledge, expertise, productivity, and satisfaction of the adults. It focuses on benefiting the personal as well as the group. Additionally benefits the organization, community and the whole of humanity. In the Human Resource Development framework, there are four stages which consisted of Need assessment, Design, Implementation and lastlyRead MoreDescribe the Human Resource Development (Hrd) Process and Critically Examine How Hrd Programmes Can Help Organisations and Its Employees to Remain Competitive in Their Business.2719 Words   |  11 Pagesinvestment in human capital. In a speech by Lee, Y.S (2007) he mentioned that an Economist’s article survey showed that attracting and retaining talent is the number one priority. Many organizations having realized that, in order to be ahead of their competitors, they have to constantly learning how to maximize out from the employees to achieve the organization strategic business objectivities. With the realization of the importance of the employees, it has made a significant impact on the human resourceRead MoreHistory of Hrd in India1112 Words   |  5 PagesHistory of HRD in India    | It was 25 years ago that our country witnessed the emergence of a new HRD culture in our country with Prof Udai Pareek and Prof T.V.Rao heading the movement.    What started as a Review Exercise of the Performance Appraisal System for Lamp;T by two consultants, Prof Udai Pareek and Prof T.V. Rao from the Indian Institute Of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA), resulted in the development of a new function - The HRD Function.      In the early seventies, this companyRead MoreHuman Resource Development Essay1671 Words   |  7 PagesHuman Resource Development (HRD) is often seen to be a central feature of SHRM. Discuss the role and importance of HRD in achieving SHRM organizational outcomes. Introduction Learning and development in the context of organizational development is having an essential role in achieving strategic human resourcing outcome. From attraction and retention, to development and utilisation of human capital, Human Resource Development (HRD) is the centre of strategic focus in HRM. This essay aims to presentRead MoreThe Relationship Between Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development976 Words   |  4 Pagesthe Relationship Between Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development Diana Williams National American University Understanding the Relationship Between Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development Human resource management (HRM) is the umbrella under which all other human resource activities are found. Some of the major activities under the umbrella are: benefits and compensation, health safety and security, human resource planning, staffing, equal employmentRead MoreThe Similarities Of Adult Education ( Ae ) And Human Resource Development819 Words   |  4 PagesEducation (AE) and Human Resource Development (HRD) out weigh the differences. Both AE and HRD seek learning that advances the ability of individuals to improve and progress, which is the main objective of both. The fact that both seek to advance the abilities of individuals through learning there is no doubt in my mind that AE can provide a foundation. An important foundation that HRD can take from AE is the control it provides a learner over his or her own self-determination instead of HRD only focusing

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Moving from prescribing medications by brand name to INN Free Essays

string(25) " status of their people\." Abstract Drug prescription is not only a routine in medical use functioning, but also plays pivotal role in improving the health status of patients seeking such services. The nature and efficacy of pharmacy services depends on the extent of professionalism, which define the methods and ethical standards with which one carries out such duties.Furthermore, pharmaceutical services vary from one place to another, and often governed by the prevailing state laws. We will write a custom essay sample on Moving from prescribing medications by brand name to INN or any similar topic only for you Order Now This research paper therefore, presents a detailed discussion of two main aspect of pharmacy. The first section entails the shift in the drug prescription methods, from the initial brand based method to the modern based on the active ingredient making up the medicine. The second section outlines the contribution of a pharmacist in influencing the brand of medicine that can be prescribed in a clinical process. Introduction The efforts aimed at changing the health care provider’s prescribing behaviour to achieve consistency with the ever changing best medical practises is the chief challenge ensuring the safest dispensation and use of medicine. Due the emergence of new data about the use of drugs such as their effectiveness, dosing options, side effects, indications as well as contraindications, the existing pharmaceutical options also keep on evolving (Garcia-Gollarte, 2012). As a result of the new changes in the medical practises, there are resulting gaps between the prescription options based on evidence, and the usual practises in most clinics. For example, other than the common error of under dozing and over dozing, the prescribers may occasionally give particular medicines for wrong conditions. Biological Medicines and Biosimillar medicines The biological medicines are also referred to as biologics, and consist of organic compounds made through biotechnological mechanisms. The biologics appeared for use in the 1980s, and have since then advanced to bring improvements in the treatment of many diseases. Their uses as alternative medicine have revolutionized the treatment of diseases, which has led to the improvement of health status across billions of people in the world. Consequently, this category of drugs has become popular since their introduction, a process whose end has seen the diminishing power of the original biological medicine. There are many manufacturing companies, who have acquired the permission to manufacture similar brands of the original biological medicine, commonly trending the medical market as biosimillar medicines. As a result of the existing complexity in the process of manufacturing the original medicine, the biosimillar medicines do not qualify for the generic class of medicine (Dylst, Vulto Simoens, 2013). This is mainly due to the fact that this category is not typically identical to the original medicine. There are concerns regarding the authenticity and the effectiveness of the process of differentiating between such biosimillar medicines and the original biological medicines. These concerns are based on the extents of similarities observed when such drugs are used, as compared to the original biological medicines. For example, under same conditions of a particular patient, when a biosimillar is compared with Infliximab, the uses of biosimilars have manifested the same therapeutic efficacy, as well as the incidences of drug related events. In addition to the similar levels of therapeutic efficacy, biosimilars are equally tolerated by the body system, and also comparable in terms of their safety issues. It is the complexity in their manufacturing processes, in tandem with safety concerns that the ongoing monitoring derives its basis (Declerck Simoens, 2012). Concerns regarding the use of biosimilar drugs The concerns rose over the issues relating to safety, efficacy and the cost of using the biosimilars have resulted into the urgent need for a change of prescription method from the initial brand name to the use of active ingredients. This is because of the compromise of such brands, in which certain biosimilars do not recognize the copied brands, and thus creating confusion. The key concern that has been raised through the Pharmacovigilance involves the criteria wit which one can use to draw a line between the original biological medicine and the biosimilar medicines. There are a plethora of biosimilar medicines that after manufacturing have been approved by the European Medicines Agency. Such approvals have derived their bases on the abbreviated programs, in which the manufacturing process was purely based on copying the formula of those biological medicines already in the market. Some of these biosimilar medicines in this category exist in the market, despite lack of approval by the regulatory bodies, under the legal regulatory frameworks within Europe. Their lack of approval has therefore led to the ultimate doubt about the validity of such medicines, especially the possibility of adverse reactions occurring as side effects. The cost of purchasing the biosimilar medicines has also raised major concerns in the pharmaceutical industries in the Europe, just like other parts of the world. The relative low cost of acquiring such medicines has led into a perception by many people, that the existence of cheaper alternatives could be derailing the development of the industry. Consequently, there is an increase of pressure to prescribe the cheaper and new alternatives among patients, who may not afford the original biological medicines. Furthermore, such pressures have led to the increased use of such alternatives without any critical attention paid to the criteria of prescription and application of brand names. Transition from the drug brand name to the INN system of drug prescription The recent decades have been epitomised by a major burden of chronic diseases, not only among the European member states, but also across the globe. In order to curb the ever growing menace of such diseases among populations, the concerned authorities such as the World Health Organization, through respective governments have had to act. The chief aim of such action by the WHO, through respective governments have been to facilitate, and enforce laws to ensure that all professional health workers and patients access the safest, high quality, modern and affordable medicine to improve the health status of their people. You read "Moving from prescribing medications by brand name to INN" in category "Essay examples" Biomedical studies over time have identified the biological medicines as one of the most effective categories of medicine that can meet this criterion. However, the main challenge in the provision of such biological medicine has been manifested on the means of identification by both patients and pharmacists during prescription. Surveys have further pointed out that the method of prescription plays a pivotal role in limiting the resulting confusion during the identification of drugs from place, particularly from one country to another within Europe (CDC, 2012). For instance, over the recent decades, the method of prescription has been based on the brand name. There are a number of factors that determine the brand name for a particular medicine, such as the location or trans-border movements within Europe. Such variation have therefore been a core ingredient in breeding the much confusion when prescribing drugs from one place, especially for patients who may be new in such places. A particular brand name for a medicine used at one point may either be unfamiliar, or used for a different medicine in another place (Rotenstein, 2013). Consequently, the need for a more standardised system of naming and prescribing drugs across the globe, including the European member states becomes an indispensible discourse. The European member states, in tandem with the world, have therefore joined the movement from prescribing medications by brand name to the INN International Nonproprietary Name (INN). Currently, there is a legislation process, whose purpose is to prevent doctors from brand prescription, but rather an active ingredient in the medicine, to allow easy determination by the patient. The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) The International Nonproprietary Name is a special term in healthy sciences and medicines, which is given to pharmaceuticals for purposes of easy identification. Having been initiated by the World Health Organization, the INN system of identification began to operate in 1953, for the benefit of not only the health workers such as pharmacists, but also help patients identify their medication with ease. The ease of identification was based on the common aim of the system for the generation of convenient common names for the existing pharmaceutical substances. In this case, each name generated under this system becomes unique for a global recognition of the substance as a public property. Consequently, the INN given to each pharmaceutical can have wide uses for the manufacturers and users, as well as the process of generic prescription in studies regarding drug use (CDC, 2012). The use of the International Nonproprietary Name in the drug prescription process functions to harmonise the communication regarding the medical activities among health professionals, drug consumers and patients. As a result, this system helps to prevent potential occurrence of medication errors. A medication error refers to any resulting misconception in the processes of drug prescription, dispensation, administration as well as monitoring the use of a particular drug. Medication errors are a major cause of most adverse reactions in patients, whose prevention can easily be achieved through accurate use of the relevant drugs. The accuracy can also be achieved through a process of synchronization, in which a single drug can retain a single identification from one place to another. A prescription method, based on the active ingredient as the common component of a particular drug, such as the INN system, has been enforced through a new legislative body referred to as the European Union Pharmacovigilance Legislation. Pharmacovigilance is a process, which consists of scientific activities of detecting, conducting an assessment of the adverse risks, understanding, and the establishment of potential prevention measures for the resulting adverse reactions (CDC, 2012). The European Medicines Agency Responsibilities The chief responsibility of the European Medicines Agency is to obtain and report the relevant data regarding adverse drug reactions, resulting from medical errors. Such reports are gathered and submitted to the Eudravigilance, a database that stores all the relevant data for medical errors among the European member states. Moreover, the database system is designed in such a way that it does not only receive the relevant information on adverse drug reaction, but also processes, stores and avails upon demand, the stored information after electronic submission.s The database run by the European Medical agency also permits users to conduct a critical analysis of the data herein, and enables one t make accurate conclusions regarding the data collected in determining the prevailing medical trends in different regions of Europe (Declerck, Simoens, 2012). In the modern system, there are legislative measures, which ensure that the data regarding medicines are stored and undergo general processing, during which drugs should maintain a standard description using the active ingredient, other than the initial brand name. In addition to the data reception, storage, and analysis through the Eudravigilance database, the legislative body also has a role of coordination among the European member states. The coordination role between different medicine regulatory authorities across Europe also involves all the individual Pharmacovigilance centres, as well as the patient safety authorities. The main aim of this role is to ensure that there is mutual flow of relevant information among the member states, so as to enhance communication of the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) is also a legislative committee charged with a duty of offering the requisite recommendations for all medicine regulatory frameworks within the EU (Allen Ansel, 2013). The recommendations made by the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee function to enhance further safety issues, resulting from inappropriate use of medicines in various regions across the member states (O’Connor, Gallagher O’Mahony, 2012). While formulating these recommendations, the committee takes into considerations, including risk management issues, to monitor the extent of effectiveness, with which various mechanisms help to eradicate the occurrence of medication errors and adverse drug reactions. Role of a Pharmacist in Determining a Drug Prescription Pharmacists have the most critical role in determining the type or brand of medication to prescribe. This is because they are the base of the powers for dispensing the drugs for patients, in a normal clinical routine (Gibberson, 2013). When lack of professionalism occurs in the dispensation of medicines for patients, there are higher chances of adverse medical reactions resulting from medical errors. Each year, the occurrence of medical errors, emanating from inappropriate prescription and dispensation of medicines by unprofessional pharmacists has caused harm to at least 1.5 million people. Furthermore, the loss incurred in terms of the cost of treating the injuries caused in hospitals runs at higher levels of at least $3.5 Billion each year. However, these cost estimates do not take into account the additional cost in terms of the extra wages and salaries incurred while causing and correcting such messes (Spinewine, Fialova Byrne, 2012). Throughout history, pharmacists have played a pivotal role in ensuring an improved patient health through appropriate prescription and dispensing of the right brand of medicine. Through improved disease management techniques and therapy practises, effective spending in healthcare activities, and enhanced adherence leads to improved quality of life (Haga, 2013). In order to influence the brand of medicine to prescribe for a particular patient, the pharmacist should acquire a deeper comprehension of the patients’ medical condition. Most often, the pharmacist relies entirely on the information obtained from the technician, which helps them provide additional base for the patient’s safety (O’Connor, Gallagher O’Mahony, 2012). In order to obtain the required accuracy, it is important for the technician to observe strict adherence to the system based procedures when obtaining the information regarding a patient’s medical condition. In cases where the technician experiences unusual or any form of abnormalities, it is their responsibility to inform the pharmacist, to enable them prescribe and dispense the right brand of medicine (Allen Ansel, 2013). The Scope of Practise in Pharmacy The scope of practise for different pharmacists varies from one country to another, depending on the prevailing state laws. The governing board of pharmacy also plays a pivotal role in determining the extent to which professional pharmacists can exercise their powers, and ability to influence the type of prescription. There are sets of regulation in various countries, which permit the pharmacists to exercise their powers as professional within specific areas within the medical care system (Law, 2012). On the other hand, other countries have laws that encourage a broader approach to service delivery within the medical service delivery. The pharmacist may therefore take part in different parts of the medication, ranging from diagnosis, prescription, drug dispensation as well as monitoring. The pharmacist therefore has a wide range of options and opportunities, during which they can influence the prescription of a given medicine (Abood, 2012). Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is another aspect of enabler, through which pharmacists acquire an opportunity to influence the prescription. In the modern world of health care system, the practise of pharmacy has advanced from the initial practise of dispensing medicine and offering counselling sessions to offering more detailed clinical patient care services. In cases where a pharmacist meets restraining conditions in which they are unable to offer a wider spectrum of services to their patients, they often lack satisfaction from their jobs (Allen Ansel, 2013). Eradication of fraudulent prescription The main source of medical errors often emanate from fraudulent prescriptions, some of which are out of human intervention, while the rest may be unintentional. In order to take control of the process and make the relevant decision regarding the prescription, pharmacists should understand what constitutes fraudulent practises and work towards eradicating them. Fraudulent prescriptions are caused by legitimate practises, in which patients decide to make alterations to their prescriptions to suit their personal interests (Declerck Simoens, 2012). In such cases, the patient may show preference for a particular brand of medicine, and insist that they be treated with the same. In other experiences, patients may also alter prescriptions depending on the cost incurred, in which they either opt for cheaper brands, or prefer more expensive brands due to their perception of higher quality and efficacy. A pharmacist may use their influence in such cases to discover the fraud and alter the prescription, and dispense the right medicine depending on the patient’s conditions (Cornes, 2012). In addition to cases of alteration, pharmacists also have the technical and professional skills to discover the validity of prescription pads. One of the most conspicuous methods of identifying the validity of such prescription pads may involve subjecting the contact information to a rigor of scrutiny, to determine if they bear the name of the bearer. Such details may include the surnames, contact phone number as well as the registration number (Campanelli, 2012). Professionally, stealing a prescription pads translates into an automatic medical error and a potential adverse reaction. In situations where the pharmacists discover such anomalies, there are a number of professional measures that can be employed to influence the brand of medication prescribed and dispensed. Pharmacists ensure that they apply strict rules, in which only the state authorised individuals or prescribers can write prescription orders. The state authorized person is defined by the state a trained physician, dentist, veterinarian, podiatrist, as well as other state registered practitioners. For instance, there are states with strict rules in which other health professionals such as physician assistants and nurses to participate in conducting prescriptions under supervision or instruction by the pharmacist in charge. Similarly, other states also permit a sense of autonomy for the mid-level practitioners (Law,, 2012). The pharmacist therefore has a duty to understand the prevailing laws regarding the state provisions on drug prescription, before determining one. This helps them avoid cases of assumption, in which they perceive that every prescription given for the controlled substances is inappropriate. A pharmacist who obtains a prescription whose validity attracts signs of doubt or appears invalid in any way, it is professional to undertake affirmative steps aimed at establishing the authenticity of the prescription holder (Cornes, 2012). In cases where the pharmacists have doubts about the contact information, they may have to use the prescriber’s contact office, other than the patients contact information. A telephone call to the office creates an additional time in the prescription process, during the concerned parties may address the gaps in the existing prescription. This way, the pharmacist not only gets a chance to influence the types of medication prescribed, but also adheres to t he legal requirements, including state laws regarding the use of drugs. References Abood, R. R. (2012). Pharmacy practice and the law. Jones Bartlett Publishers. Allen, L. V., Ansel, H. C. (2013). Pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Campanelli, C. M. (2012). American Geriatrics Society Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults: The American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(4), 616. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. (2012). CDC grand rounds: prescription drug overdoses-a US epidemic. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 61(1), 10. Cornes, P. (2012). The economic pressures for biosimilar drug use in cancer medicine. Targeted oncology, 7(1), 57-67. Declerck, P. J., Simoens, S. A. (2012). European perspective on the market accessibility of biosimilars. Biosimilars, 2, 33-40. Dylst, P., Vulto, A., Simoens, S. (2013). Demand-side policies to encourage the use of generic medicines: an overview. Expert review of pharmacoeconomics outcomes research, 13(1), 59-72. Garcia-Gollarte, F., Baleriola-Julvez, J., Ferrero-Lopez, I., Cruz-Jentoft, A. J. (2012). Inappropriate drug prescription at nursing home admission. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 13(1), 83-e9. Gibberson, R. A. D. M., Yoder, C. D. R., Lee, C. D. R. (2012). Improving Patient and Health System Outcomes through Advanced Pharmacy Practice. A Report to the US Surgeon General. University of the Incarnate Word Pharmacy Review, 1(2). Haga, S. B., Burke, W., Ginsburg, G. S., Mills, R., Agans, R. (2012). Primary care physicians’ knowledge of and experience with pharmacogenetic testing. Clinical genetics, 82(4), 388-394. Law, M. R., Ma, T., Fisher, J., Sketris, I. S. (2012). Independent pharmacist prescribing in Canada O’Connor, M. N., Gallagher, P., O’Mahony, D. (2012). Inappropriate Prescribing. Drugs aging, 29(6), 437-452. Rolland, Y., Andrieu, S., Crochard, A., Goni, S., Hein, C., Vellas, B. (2012). Psychotropic drug consumption at admission and discharge of nursing home residents. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 13(4), 407-e7. Rotenstein, L. S., Ran, N., Shivers, J. P., Yarchoan, M., Close, K. L. (2012). Opportunities and Challenges for Biosimilars: What’s on the Horizon in the Global Insulin Market?. Clinical Diabetes, 30(4), 138-150. Spinewine, A., Fialova, D., Byrne, S. (2012). The role of the pharmacist in optimizing pharmacotherapy in older people. Drugs aging, 29(6), 495-510. How to cite Moving from prescribing medications by brand name to INN, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Fundamentals of Nonverbal Behavior

Question: Discuss about the Fundamentals of Nonverbal Behavior. Answer: It starts even before a candidate say his/her first word in an interview. As the interviewer walks towards the candidate to shake his/her hands, an opinion has already being formed. And when a candidate sits waiting to spew out the answers to the questions they have prepared for, they are already being judged by their posture, appearance, smile, or their anxious looks. According to the study conducted by UCLA few years back reflected that the impact of performance of the candidate during the interview is based on 7% of the words that have been used, 38% on the quality of voice 55% on the non-verbal communication (Feldman Rim, 2001). Basically, nonverbal indicates: Controlling the communication flow, such as signalling to stop or start speaking. Defining relationship among the two individuals, such as shaking hands when entering or exiting the interview hall. Giving definite feedback. Supplementing verbal communication, like nodding the head when answering Yes. Conveying information about the emotional state of the candidate, like tapping the feet or too much blinking the eyes (anxiety nervousness) (DePaulo, 2002) There are different aspects which define nonverbal behaviour should be taken into consideration while giving interview: Kinetics or Body language A body moment comprises of gestures, posters, head hand moments, or the whole body movements. Body language establishes a dynamic part of communication as it strengthens what an applicant or candidate is trying to convey while sharing information about their attitudes emotions. Sometimes it may happen that body language of an individual may conflict with what he/she is trying to convey to the interviewer, which may lead the interviewer to reach at a wrong conclusion (Russo, 2005). Body language can be further categorized as: Adaptors: Gestures which fulfil a physical need. Like eating nails or scraping an itch while feeling anxious. Illustrators: Gestures which are complementing the verbal communications. Such as nodding the head when meaning yes, these types of signals strengthens what is being communicated. Illustrators vary from culture to culture. Looking into the eyes while stressing on a point shows the confidence interest level in America, whereas it is considered as rude in Asian countries. Regulators: Gestures which provide the feedback while having the conversation. They control, regulate maintain the flow of the speech. These gestures include, indicate the understanding by using the sounds like uh-huh when nodding the head. Emblems: Gestures which means the same as what is being said. Such as, the sign of V for victory Ok. But the interpretation of these gestures could be different from culture to culture. V could symbolize absolute offensive in Australia, whereas it means the number 2 in US. Affect displays: These facial expressions gestures shows the emotions of the person. These gestures are usually unintentional and might certainly conflict with what is being said. These gestures are like using silence to show displeasure or shaking when angry (Graham Heywood, 2005). Oculesics or Eye moments The magic of sight can break or make the chances of an applicant landing into a rewarding job prospects. There could an instant rejection of an applicant who is staring at the interviewer with a look of absolute terror on his/her face. The applicant intensity of the gaze, pupil dilation, frequency of glances blink rate can expose the hidden intent while facing the interview. Moments of eyes acts as a window into the soul of the person, have a penchant to reveal information unintentionally. In order to avoid awkwardness, it is best to focus at a point closer to the eyes of the interviewer (can be nose). Maintaining the eye contact with the interviewer denotes that interest, which is way of giving receiving the feedback. Eye moments nurtures the relationship, like a person a person avoids making the eye contact when they are not sure about the question asked by the interviewer, whereas maintain a positive eye contact when a person is sure eager to answer a question. Oculesics have a tendency to infer different emotions. Like, blinking the eyes in a situation of confusion. A stable gaze forms a bridge between listening speaking (Bull, 2003). Paralinguistic or Voice Modulation Paralanguage states to all those speech aspects that are directly not related to words. Voice modulation comprises tone, intonation, audibility level pitch of our baritone. A candidate while answering questions of the interviewer should always be aware of pausing between the words articulating the speed volume of the message that is being delivered. An interviewer can easily pick emphasis on certain words (Zipf, 2015). Proxemics or Personal space In the world of multicultural societies, it is very crucial to understand the thorough tones of personal space articulated in different ethnic groups. Violating a space of an individual can be extremely offensive absolutely open to misinterpretation. In Western society personal space is defined by four types of relationships which are internally divided into a far phase a close phase: Intimate (up to forty-five cm.): These distance expanses from touching to forty-five cm, conquering the intimate space of an individual without their permission can be very offensive. Personal (forty-five cm to 1.2 m): This is the most suitable distance for having a conversation. Within this boundary, handshake is done. It is quite easy to analyse see the body language of the other person at this distance. Social (1.2-3.6 m): This practice of personal space comes into role when a candidate is sitting for the interview; this is the normal distance for interpersonal business. Public (3.7-4.5 m): At this distance which is quire far, it is important to amplify non-verbal cues for effective communication (Searle, 2009). Chronemics or Study of time This language of time could be very technical to comprehend. Getting a hang of this study of time makes for decent ethics of interview promises well for you character in case a candidate is hired. The concept of time in preparation of an interview relates to interaction, willingness to wait, patience punctuality. The time-usage of an applicant can express whether he/she is appropriate for the job or not. Reaching the venue of the interview on time could be one of the simplest examples (Birdwhistell, 2009). Pointers to Impress It is quite simple to simple to talk about nonverbal behaviour but quite difficult to practice in real time. There are no tips that can be mugged up before attending the interview. These traits are inherent which could apparent themselves in any form on the interview day. However, to decrease anxiety gain some confidence, the below suggestions should be kept in mind while preparing for an interview: Dressing properly for the interview, polished shoes, business formals. Tone down the bling when it comes to makeup, jewellery particularly fragrance Smile while meeting the interviewer for the first time Pay attention to the details be attentive. Maintain proper eye contact with the interviewer Be confident Take proper care of words rhythms that you speak Listen attentively Keep emotions in check Thank interviewer for his time patience (Apple, Streeter Krauss, 2009). Hence, to conclude we can say that nonverbal communication is an essential part of an applicant profile and to attain a successful carrier it is important to develop these skills. References Apple, W., Streeter, L. A., Krauss, R. M. (2009). Effects of pitch and speech rate on personal attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 715- 727. Birdwhistell, R. L. (2007). Kinesics and context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Bull, P. (2003). Body movement and interpersonal communication. London: Wiley. DePaulo, B. M. (2002). Nonverbal behavior and self-presentation. Psychological Review, 111, 203-243. Feldman, R. S., Rim, B. (2001). Fundamentals of nonverbal behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press, Graham, J. A., Heywood, S. (2005). The effects of elimination of hand gestures and of verbal codability on speech performance. 5, 185-189. Russo, N. F. (2005). Eye contact, interpersonal distance, and the equilibrium theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 497-502. Searle, J. R. (2009). Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zipf, G. K. (2015). The psychobiology of language. New York: Houghton-Mifflin

Sunday, March 29, 2020

The Omnivore Dilemma Part One Summary free essay sample

Industrial/Corn Summary The Omnivore’s Dilemma, by Michael Pollan, analyzes the eating habits and food chains of modern America in an attempt to bring readers closer to the origin of their foods. Pollan’s blend of humor and philosophical questions about the nature of food serves both to enlighten readers about the environment from which their food is harvested and to teach readers about alternative ways of eating. In the first chapter of Omnivore’s Dilemma by Michael Pollan, we are introduced to the topic of industrial corn and its origins some thousands of years ago. Originally known as â€Å"Zea Mays†, corn started off slow in biological terms but blew up after the discovery of Christopher Columbus. Now that there was corn the settlers were free from the Natives and could now support themselves on the agriculture of corn. Now in modern times we have created new types of corns to feed humans and animals but also to create over 25000 products in supermarkets today. We will write a custom essay sample on The Omnivore Dilemma: Part One Summary or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Pallon mentions in Chapter one the differences between American and Mexican diets. Stating that the Mexican diet is that of a corn-based nature, where as Americans is on the other side of the spectrum eating more meats than anything. In truth it’s the opposite, it’s the Americans that are eating more corn. It all comes down to the way we feed our animals and process our foods. Americans feed their livestock with corn, and pump corn-based products into readily available food. Whereas Mexicans although they eat a wide variety of corn and grains still feed their animals with grass and sweeten with sugar cane versus corn-based sweeteners. So the Americans really do beat out the â€Å"Corn walkers†, I guess you could say they’re walking corn from the high levels of corn consumption. Pollan pulled me into chapter one with the information he provided about corn. I was enlightened by this chapter and decided to do some research of my own. I started looking into several different food and products that are corn based and animals that are corn fed. For example, corn feeds the steer, chicken, pig, turkey, lamb, and some fish, we eat; corn is in processed foods, like a chicken nugget contains corn starch, corn flour, corn oil, as well as lecithin, mono-di- and tri-glycerides, and citric acid, which all contain corn; Corn is contained in soft and fruit drinks, alcohol, mayonnaise, mustard, margarine, salad dressing, cereal, toothpaste, cosmetics, disposable diapers, trash bags, cleaners, matches, batteries, magazine covers, linoleum, fiberglass, wallboard and gasoline (ethanol). Needless to say, corn is everywhere! In chapter two, Pollan visits a small farmer in Iowa owned by George Naylor. Most of the 470 acre farm is used to grow corn, to ensure a high yield rate for the season. While at the farm Pollan sets out to understand the mysteries of the Industrial Corn world and to get an in depth look at the life of a farmer’s life after corn surpluses have been put in. Last, in chapter three, Pollan visits the great grain elevator not far from the Naylor farm in Iowa. He goes in-depth with the governments funding and the living of a farmer on the subsidies. To be perfectly honest, I was expecting â€Å"The Omnivore’s Dilemma† to be boring, overly written and full of words I could not only pronounce but did not know the meaning of but I found it to be well defined and though out in terms of the structure and sentence transitions. Many writers attempt to grab the reader’s attention with over-inflated words, when a simple description is adequate, and quite sufficient to convey the though, idea, or concept, that the book is about. I was thrilled reading about corn, which was not expected, and it made reading the book that much more enjoyable.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists essays

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists essays Before long, the Articles of Confederation proved to be insufficient in establishing law and order in early America. A Constitution was drafted, giving more power to the national government and setting up an intricate system to balance this power. Federalists, supporters of this constitution, debated with their opponent Anti-Federalists regarding whether or not to ratify the newly proposed system. Federalists advocated allowing the national government to pass laws and later judge their constitutionality. In order to accomplish this without the government getting too powerful, the proposed regime was broken into three branches, each keeping the other two in check. Under this system, the government would be able to create laws which apply to all the states. Individual states would still have the power to pass their own laws. Anti-Federalists responded to this with criticism. Richard Henry Lee stated that the checks and balance system would be too restricting on the different branches, resulting in progress being extremely difficult to impossible. Further, he conjectured that the people of all the states must be willing to come together and follow the same laws, which in his opinion is unlikely. Luther Martin argued that the constitution should be developed by the states, providing the example of the peaceful state-led compilation of the Articles of Confederation. Protecting the minority was a Federalist priority. In the proposed system, representative legislature would prevent smaller factions interests from being completely ignored. To Anti-Federalists the system seemed fundamentally flawed in that the legislature could be influenced by a few powerful men, changing power from the hands of the many to those of the few and thus ignoring most peoples interests. Lee stated that Federalists wanted to adopt the constitution only as a stepping stone to give themselves more power and influence. Further,...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Current Events Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Current Events - Essay Example However, the company has had to make many changes since it acquired Zain Africa in a deal that involved more than ten billion dollars (Campbell 416). The main reason was the existence of established mobile operators in individual countries and across regions. One of examples is the West African region where MTN has acquired a considerable stake of the market. However, apart from this, the high operating costs, a low-income market, political instability, and restrictive government policies have been among the major reasons for Airtel Africa reengineering. Despite the numerous changes that have faced this company the short-term achievements are exceptional (Campbell 417). The incentives the company has offered, such as low calling, texting, and Internet rates, have ensured the constant rise of the number of its subscribers. Moreover, the recent roll out of 3G Internet speed for its users has been its most successful promotional methods so far. The success achieved in the African market has established it among the five top mobile operators in the world. In conclusion, Bharti Airtel reengineering has been beneficial not only for the company but also for the African people. In a general business outlook, it is one of the main contributors to making Africa one of the fastest growing telephone markets in the world (Pan 14). Consequently, as shown by Bharti Airtel, reengineering is one of the most effective methods to expand, increase profits, and accelerate the growth of a